Every computer device you have ever used, from your school computers to your calculator, has been using algorithms to tell it how to do whatever it was doing. Algorithms are a very important topic in Computer Science because they help software developers create efficient and error free programs. The most important thing to remember about algorithms is that there can be many different algorithms for the same problem, but some are much better than others!

Click an image to play sorting animations

Selection sort

Quick sort

Animations provided by David Martin from www.sorting-algorithms.com

Computers are incredibly fast at manipulating, moving and looking through data. However the amount of data computers use is often so large that it doesn't matter how fast the computer is, it will take it far too long to examine every single piece of data (companies like Google, Facebook and Twitter routinely process billions of things per day, and in some cases, per minute!) This is where algorithms come in. If a computer is given a better algorithm to process the data then it doesn't matter how much information it has to look through, it will still be able to do it in a reasonable amount of time.

If you have read through the Introduction chapter you may remember that the speed of an application on a computer makes a big difference to a human using it. If an application you create is too slow, people will get frustrated with it and won't use it. It doesn't matter if your software is amazing, if it takes too long they will simply give up and try something else!

At this stage you might be thinking that algorithms and computer programs kind of sound like the same thing, but they are actually two very distinct concepts. They are each different ways of describing how to do something, but at different levels of precision:

Often you can get away with describing a process just using some sort of informal instructions using natural language; for example, an informal instruction in a non computing context might be "please get me a glass of water". A human can understand what this means and can figure out how to accomplish this task by thinking, but a computer would have no idea how to do this!

An example in a computational context might be if you wanted to find a high score in a table of scores: go through each score keeping track of the largest so far. Informal instructions like this aren't precise; there's no way that a computer could follow those instructions exactly, but a human could probably get the general idea of what you mean if they know what you're trying to achieve. This sort of description is only useful for quickly giving another human the general idea of what you mean, and even then there's a risk that they won't properly understand it.

In contrast, an algorithm is a step by step process that describes how to solve a problem and/or complete a task, which will always give the correct result. For our previous non-computing example, the algorithm might be 1) Go to the kitchen. 2) Pick up a glass. 3) Turn on the tap. 4) Put the glass under the running water and remove it once it is almost full. 5) Turn off the tap. 6) Take the glass back to the person who gave the instruction. A human could follow these instructions easily, but it's still using general English language rather than a strict list of computer instructions.

Algorithms are often expressed using a loosely defined format called pseudo-code, which matches a programming language fairly closely, but leaves out details that could easily be added later by a programmer. Pseudocode doesn't have strict rules about the sorts of commands you can use, but it's halfway between an informal instruction and a specific computer program.

With the high score problem, the algorithm might be written in pseudo-code like this:

if the table is empty
  display that there is no high score, and quit
otherwise, note the first score in the table
for each of the other scores in the table,
  if that score is larger than the one noted,
    replace the noted one with the current score
display the currently noted score

Algorithms are more precise than informal instructions and do not require any insight to follow; they are still not precise enough for a computer to follow in the form they are written, but are precise enough for a human to know exactly what you mean, so they can then work out how to implement your algorithm, either doing it themselves, or writing a computer program to do it. The other important thing with this level of precision is that we can often make a good estimate of how fast it will be. For the high score problem above, if the score table gets twice as big, the algorithm will take about twice as long. If the table could be very big (perhaps we're tracking millions of games and serving up the high score many times each second), that might already be enough to tell us that we need a better algorithm to track high scores regardless of which language it's going to be programmed in; or if the table only ever has 10 scores in it, then we know that the program is only going to do a few dozen operations, and is bound to be really fast even on a slow computer.

The most precise way of giving a set of instructions is in the form of a program, which is a specific implementation of an algorithm, written in a specific programming language, with a very specific result for any particular input. This is the most precise of these three descriptions and computers are able to follow and understand these.

For the example with getting a drink, we might program a robot to do that; it would be written in some programming language that the robot's computer can run, and would tell the robot exactly how to retrieve a glass of water and bring it back to the person who asked for the water.

With the high-score problem, it would be written in a particular language; even in a particular language there are lots of choices about how to write it, but here's one particular way of working out a high score (don't worry too much about the detail of the program if the language isn't familiar; the main point is that you could give it to a computer that runs Python, and it would follow the instructions exactly):

def find_high_score(scores):
    if len(scores) == 0:
        print("No high score, table is empty")
        return -1
    else:
        highest_so_far = scores[0]
        for score in scores[1:]:
            if score > highest_so_far:
                highest_so_far = score
        return highest_so_far

But here's another program that implements exactly the same algorithm, this time in the Scratch language.

Both of the above programs are the same algorithm. In this chapter we'll look in more detail about what an algorithm is, and why they are such a fundamental idea in computer science. Because algorithms exist even if they aren't turned in to programs, we won't need to look at programs at all for this topic, unless you particularly want to.

When Computer Scientists are comparing algorithms they often talk about the 'cost' of an algorithm. The cost of an algorithm can be interpreted in several different ways, but it is always related to how well an algorithm performs based on the size of its input, n. In this chapter we will talk about the cost of an algorithm as either the time it takes a program (which performs the algorithm) to complete, or the number of steps that the algorithm makes before it finishes.

For example, one way of expressing the cost of the high score algorithm above would be to observe that for a table of 10 values, it does about 10 sets of operations to find the best score, whereas for a table of 20 scores, it would do about twice as many operations. In general the number of operations for a table of n items will be proportional to n. Not all algorithms take double the time for double the input; some take a lot more than double, while others take a lot less. That's worth knowing in advance because we usually need our programs to scale up well; in the case of the high scores, if you're running a game that suddenly becomes popular, you want to know in advance that the high score algorithm will be fast enough if you get more scores to check.

  • Extra For Experts: Algorithm complexity

    The formal term for working out the cost of an algorithm is algorithm analysis, and we often refer to the cost as the algorithm's complexity. The most common complexity is the "time complexity" (a rough idea of how long it takes to run), but often the "space complexity" is of interest - how much memory or disk space will the algorithm use up when it's running?

    There's more about how the cost of an algorithm is described in industry, using a widely agreed on convention called 'Big-O Notation', in the "The whole story!" section at the end of this chapter.

The amount of time a program which performs the algorithm takes to complete may seem like the simplest cost we could look at, but this can actually be affected by a lot of different things, like the speed of the computer being used, or the programming language the program has been written in. This means that if the time the program takes to complete is used to measure the cost of an algorithm it is important to use the same program and the same computer (or another computer with the same speed) for testing the algorithm with different numbers of inputs.

The number of operations (such as comparisons of data items) that an algorithm makes however will not change depending on the speed of a computer, or the programming language the program using the algorithm is written in. Some algorithms will always make the same number of comparisons for a certain input size, while others might vary.

If we develop or are given an algorithm to solve a problem, how do we know that it works? Sometimes we create test cases to verify the algorithm produces correct output for specific input values. While this is a useful practice and can help verify that we are on the right track, it is not enough to show that our algorithm is correct. The old adage "even a broken watch is correct twice a day" is a good analogy. Even an algorithm that is correct for two test cases might be incorrect for every other input. A computer scientist must reason formally or mathematically about an algorithm to show its correctness. Typically this is done by classifying ranges of input values and showing that algorithm produces expected results for boundary values of the range and all values in between.

Correctness is particularly important when comparing two algorithms that solve the same problem. If one algorithm is very fast to complete but produces incorrect results some of the time it may be far less useful than a correct algorithm that is slower. Correctness is also important when using an algorithm as the building block for another algorithm. Here is an algorithm for assigning animals as pets to people on a waitlist:

  1. Search for the person who is earliest on the the waitlist
  2. Assign the person who is earliest on the waitlist with their preferred animal as a pet
  3. Repeat 1-2 until no people remain on the waitlist

This algorithm relies on a correct search algorithm in the first step. If the search algorithm incorrectly chose a random person, the algorithm for assigning animals as pets would also be incorrect.

As you will see in this chapter with searching and sorting there exist multiple correct algorithms for the same problem. Often there are good reasons to know multiple correct algorithms because there are tradeoffs in simplicity, algorithm cost, and assumptions about inputs.

In this chapter we will look at two of the most common and important types of algorithms, Searching and Sorting. You probably come across these kinds of algorithms every time you use a computer without even realising! They also happen to be great for illustrating some of the key concepts that arise with algorithms.

Searching through collections of data is something computers have to do all the time. It happens every time you type in a search on Google, or when you type in a file name to search for on your computer. Computers deal with such huge amounts of data that we need fast algorithms to help us find information quickly.

Lets investigate searching with a game...

You may have noticed that the numbers on the monsters and pets in the game were in a random order, which meant that finding the pet was basically luck! You might have found it on your first try, or if you were less lucky you might have had to look inside almost all the presents before you found it. This might not seem like such a bad thing since you had enough lives to look under all the boxes, but imagine if there had been 1,000 boxes, or worse 1,000,000! It would have taken far too long to look through all the boxes and the pet might have never been found.

Now this next game is slightly different. You have less lives, which makes things a bit more challenging, but this time the numbers inside the boxes will be in order. The monsters, or maybe the pet, with the smallest number is in the present on the far left, and the one with the largest number is in the present on the far right. Let's see if you can collect all the pets without running out of lives...

Now that you have played through the whole game (and hopefully found all of the lost pets!) you may have noticed that even though you had less lives in the second part of the game, and lots of presents to search through, you were still able to find the pet. Why was this possible?

Since the boxes in the first game were in a random order there really wasn't any strategy you could have used to find the pet, except simply keep opening presents one by one until you found the pet. This is essentially the Linear Search algorithm (sometimes called a sequential search). In plain English, Linear Search algorithm is as follows:

  • Check if the first item in a list is the item you are searching for, if it is the one you are looking for, you are done.
  • If it isn't the item you are searching for move on and check the next item.
  • Continue checking items until you find the one you are searching for.

If you used this algorithm you might get lucky and find what you are looking for on your first go, but if you were really unlucky you might have to look through everything in your list before you found the right object! For a list of 10 items this means on average you would only have to look at 5 items to find what you were looking for, but for a list of 10000 you would have to look through on average 5000.

  • Curiosity: How is Bozo search different from Linear search?

    If you watched the video at the beginning of the chapter you might be thinking that what you did in the present searching game sounds more like Bozo Search than Linear Search, but actually Bozo Search is even sillier than this! If you were doing a Bozo Search then after unwrapping a present and finding a monster inside, you would wrap the present back up and try another one at random! This means you might end up checking the same present again and again and again and you might never find the pet, even with a small number of presents!

A much better algorithm to use is called Binary Search. In the second part of the present searching game the boxes were in order, which meant you were able to be more clever when you were searching for the pet, and you might have been using a Binary Search without realising!

If you used a Binary Search on each of the levels then you would have always had enough lives to find the pet! Informally, the Binary Search algorithm is as follows:

  • Look at the item in the centre of the list and compare it to what you are searching for
  • If it is what you are looking for then you are done.
  • If it is larger than the item you are looking for then you can ignore all the items in the list which are larger than that item (if the list is from smallest to largest this means you can ignore all the items to the right of the centre item).
  • If it is smaller then you can ignore all the items in the list which are smaller than that centre item.
  • Now repeat the algorithm on the remaining half of the list, checking the middle of the list and choosing one of the halves, until you find the item you are searching for.

Binary Search is a very powerful algorithm. If you had 1000 presents to search through it would take you at most 10 checks for Binary search to find something and Linear search would take at most 1000 checks, but if you doubled the number of presents to search through how would this change the number of checks made by Binary Search and Linear search?

  • Spoiler: How does doubling the number of boxes affect the number of checks required?

    The answer to the above question is that the maximum number of checks for Linear Search would double, but the maximum number for Binary Search would only increase by one.

It is important to remember that you can only perform a Binary Search if the items you are searching through are sorted into order. This makes the sorting algorithms we will look at next even more important because without sorting algorithms we wouldn't be able to use Binary Search to quickly look through data!

Sorting is another very important area of algorithms. Computers often have to sort large amounts of data into order based on some attribute of that data, such as sorting a list of files by their name or size, or emails by the date they were received, or a customer list according to people's names. Most of the time this is done to make searching easier. For example you might have a large amount of data and each piece of data could be someone's name and their phone number. If you want to search for someone by name it would help to first have the data sorted alphabetically according to everyones names, but if you then wanted to search for a phone number it would be more useful to have the data sorted according to people's phone numbers.

Like searching there are many different sorting algorithms, but some take much longer than others. In this section you will be introduced to two slower algorithms and one much better one.

Throughout this section you can use the sorting interactive to test out the algorithms we talk about. When you're using it make sure you take note of the comparisons at the bottom of the screen, each time you compare two boxes the algorithm is making 'one comparison' so the total number of comparisons you have to make with each algorithm is the cost of that algorithm for the 8 boxes.

Use the scales to compare the boxes (you can only compare two boxes at a time) and then arrange them along the bottom of the screen. Arrange them so that the lightest box is on the far left and the heaviest is on the far right. Once you think they are in order click 'Test order'.

If the interactive does not run properly on your computer you can use a set of physical balance scales instead; just make sure you can only tell if one box is heavier than the other, not their exact weight (so not digital scales that show the exact weight).

One of the most intuitive ways to sort a group of boxes into order, from lightest to heaviest, is to start by first finding the lightest (or the heaviest) box and placing that to the side. Try this with the scales interactive.

After finding the lightest box simply repeat the process again with the remaining boxes until you find the second lightest, now place that to the side alongside the lightest box. If you keep repeating this process you will eventually find you have placed each box into order. Try sorting the whole group of boxes in the scales interactive into order using this method and count how many comparisons you have to make.

Tip: Start by moving all the boxes to the right of the screen and then once you have found the lightest box place it to the far right (if you want to find the heaviest first instead then move them all to the left).

If you record how many comparisons you had to make each time to find the next lightest box you might notice a pattern (hint: finding the lightest should take 7 comparisons, and then finding the second lightest should take 6 comparisons…). If you can see the pattern then how many comparisons do you think it would take to then sort 9 boxes into order? What about 20? If you knew how many comparisons it would take to sort 1000 boxes, then how many more comparisons would it take to sort 1001 instead?

This algorithm is called Selection sort, because each time you look through the list you are 'selecting' the next lightest box and putting it into the correct position. If you go back to the algorithms racing interactive at the top of the page you might now be able to watch the selection sort list and understand what it is doing at each step.

The selection sort algorithm can be described as follows:

  • Find the smallest item in the list and place it to one side. This will be your sorted list.
  • Next find the smallest item in the remaining list, remove it and place it into your sorted list beside the item you previously put to the side.
  • Repeat this process until all items have been selected and moved into their correct position in the sorted list.

You can swap the word 'smallest' for 'largest' and the algorithm will still work, as long as you are consistent it doesn't matter if you are looking for the smallest or the largest item each time.

This algorithm works by removing each box from the original group of boxes and inserting it into its correct position in a new sorted list. Like Selection Sort, it is very intuitive and people often perform it when they are sorting objects themselves, like cards in their hands.

Try this with the scales interactive. Start by moving all the boxes to one side of the screen, this is your original, and unsorted, group. Now choose a box at random and place that on the other side of the screen, this is the start of your sorted group.

To insert another box into the sorted group, compare it to the box that is already in the sorted group and then arrange these two boxes in the correct order. Then to add the next box compare it to these boxes (depending on the weight of the box you might only have to compare it to one!) and then arrange these three boxes in the correct order. Continue inserting boxes until the sorted list is complete. Don't forget to count how many comparisons you had to make!

This algorithm is called Insertion Sort. If you're not quite sure if you've got the idea of the algorithm yet then have a look at this animation from Wikipedia.

Insertion sort can be described with informal instructions as follows:

  • Take an item from your unsorted list and place it to the side, this will be your sorted list.
  • One by one, take each item from the unsorted list and insert it into the correct position in the sorted list.
  • Do this until all items have been sorted.

People often perform this when they physically sort items. It can also be a very useful algorithm to use if you already have a sorted set of data and want to add a new piece of data into the set. For example if you owned a library and purchased a new book you wouldn't do a Selection Sort on the entire library just to place this new book, you would simply insert the new book in its correct place.

Insertion and Selection Sort may seem like logical ways to sort things into order, but they both take far too many comparisons when they are used for large amounts of data. Remember computers often have to search through HUGE amounts of data, so even if they use a good searching algorithm like Binary Search to look through their data, if they use a bad sorting algorithm to first sort that data into order then finding anything will take far too long!

A much better sorting algorithm is Quicksort! (the name is a bit of a giveaway)

This algorithm is a little more complicated, but is very powerful. To do this algorithm with the sorting interactive, start by randomly choosing a box and placing it on the scales. Now compare every other box to the one you selected; heavier boxes should be put on the right of the second row and lighter boxes are put on the left. When you are done, place the box you were comparing everything else to between these two groups, but to help you keep track of things, put it in the row below. The following example shows how it might look after this step. Note that the selected block is in the right place for the final sorted order, and everything on either side will remain on the side that it is on.

Now apply this process to each of the two groups of boxes (the lighter ones, then the heavier ones). Keep on doing this until they are all sorted. The boxes should then be in sorted order!

It might be worth trying this algorithm out a few times and counting the number of comparisons you perform each time. This is because sometimes you might be unlucky and happen to pick the heaviest, or the lightest box first. On the other hand you might be very lucky and choose the middle box to compare everything to first. Depending on this the number of comparisons you perform will change.

Quicksort can be described in the following way:

  • Choose an item from the list and compare every other item in the list to this (this item is often called the pivot).
  • Place all the items that are greater than it into one subgroup and all the items that are smaller into another subgroup. Place the pivot item in between these two subgroups.
  • Choose a subgroup and repeat this process. Eventually each subgroup will contain only one item and at this stage the items will be in sorted order.
  • Project: Code to run selection sort and quicksort for yourself

    The following files will run selection sort and quicksort in various languages; you can use them to generate random lists of values and measure how long they take to be sorted. Note how long these take for various amounts of input (n), and show it in a table or graph. You should notice that the time taken by Quicksort is quite different to that taken by selection sort.

There are dozens of sorting algorithms that have been invented; most of the ones that are used in practice are based on quicksort and/or mergesort. These, and many others, can be seen in this intriguing animated video.

We've looked at algorithms that solved well known computational problems of sorting and searching data. When a computer scientist approaches a new computational problem that does not already have a well known solution they must create an algorithm.

There are three building blocks to develop a new algorithm: sequencing, selection, and iteration. One interesting early result in computer science is that combined, these three building blocks are sufficient to represent any algorithm that solves a computational problem!

Sequencing is the technique of deciding the order instructions are executed to produce the correct result. Imagine that we have the following instructions (A, B, C) to make a loaf of bread:

  • A llow to sit at room temperature for 1 hour
  • B ake for 30 minutes
  • C ombine ingredients

C->A->B is a standard algorithm for a yeast bread. A different sequence, for example C->B->A, might produce a result that is edible but not high quality. Even worse, a sequence of B->C->A would not even produce something edible.

Selection is the technique of allowing the algorithm to select which instructions to execute depending on criteria. Using our previous bread baking example, our algorithm C->A->B works if the ingredients include yeast, but C->B would be faster if the ingredients do not include yeast (for example, the recipe might include baking powder as the rising agent). Selection allows us to create one algorithm to solve both cases:

  1. Combine ingredients
  2. If ingredients contain yeast, allow to sit at room temperature for 1 hour
  3. Bake for 30 minutes

Iteration allows an algorithm to repeat instructions. In its simplest form we might specify the exact number of times. For example, here is an algorithm to bake 2 loaves of bread:

  1. Repeat 2 times:
    1. Combine ingredients
    2. If ingredients contain yeast, allow to sit at room temperature for 1 hour
    3. Bake for 30 minutes

This algorithm clearly works but it would take at least 3 hours to complete! If we had to make 20 loaves we would probably want to design a better algorithm. We could measure the size of the mixing bowl, how many loaves fit on the table to rise, and how many loaves we could bake at the same time in the oven. Our algorithm might then look like:

  1. Repeat 10 times:
    1. Combine ingredients for 2 loaves
    2. Split dough into 2 bread pans
    3. If ingredients contain yeast, allow to sit at room temperature for 1 hour
    4. Bake bread pans in the same oven for 30 minutes

But what if we upgraded to a larger kitchen? Most algorithms are written to combine iteration with selection to handle arbitrarily large amounts of data (i.e. an unknown number of loaves of bread). We might create a general purpose bread baking algorithm:

  1. While we have enough ingredients for at least one loaf:
    1. Combine ingredients for up to X loaves (where X is the maximum number of loaves that can fit in the mixing bowl or rising table)
    2. Split dough into X bread pans
    3. If ingredients contain yeast, allow to sit at room temperature for 1 hour
    4. While there are still bread pans on the rising table:
      1. Move up to Y loaves from the rising table to the oven (where Y is the maximum number of loaves that can fit in the oven)
      2. Bake bread pans in the same oven for 30 minutes

Astute observers will note that this algorithm is still inefficient because the rising table and oven are not used at the same time. Designing algorithms that take advantage of parallelism is an important advanced topic in computer science.

One of the advantages of the building blocks perspective is that completed algorithms themselves can now be seen as new blocks we can build with. We can connect complete algorithms or we can interleave parts of algorithms to create new algorithms.

For example, a recipe for croutons might be:

  1. Cut a loaf of bread into 2cm cubes
  2. Brush cubes lightly with olive oil and season with salt, pepper, and herbs
  3. Bake on large tray, flipping the cubes halfway through

We can connect the algorithm for baking bread in the previous section to this algorithm to create a new algorithm that makes croutons from scratch. If we required other ingredients for our recipe, we could connect multiple algorithms to build very complex algorithms.

Often when we have multiple algorithms that solve a problem there are advantages of each algorithm for specific cases. Hybrid algorithms take parts of multiple algorithms and combine them to gain the advantages of both original algorithms. For example, Timsort is one of the fastest known sorting algorithms in practice and it uses parts of insertion sort and merge sort. Insertion sort is used on very small sequences to take advantage of its speed for already or partially ordered sequences. Merge sort is used to merge these small sequences into larger ones to take advantage of the better upper bound on algorithm cost for large data sets.

  • Curiosity: Why are there so many different programming languages?

    So if we know how to define an algorithm, why are there so many programming languages? Programming languages are often created or adapted to express algorithms clearly for a specific problem domain. For example, it is easier to read mathematical algorithms in Python than Scratch. Similarly, data flow algorithms are clearer in visual programming languages like LabVIEW than Python.

We've only really scratched the surface of algorithms in this chapter, as there are millions of different algorithms for millions of different problems! Algorithms are used in maths, route planning, network planning and operation, problem solving, artificial intelligence, genetic programming, computer vision, the list goes on and on! But by going through this chapter you should have gained an understanding of the key concepts of algorithms and will be well prepared to tackle more complicated ones in the future.

The algorithms introduced in this chapter aren't even necessarily the best for any situation; there are several other common ways of searching (e.g. hashing and search trees) and sorting (e.g. mergesort), and a computer scientist needs to know them, and be able to apply and fine tune the right one to a given situation.

In this chapter we have only talked about the number of comparisons an algorithm makes, and the amount of time a program takes to complete as 'costs' of algorithms. There are actually many other ways of measuring the cost of an algorithm. These include the amount of memory the algorithm uses and its computational complexity.

An algorithm often uses computer memory to store temporary data such as a partial sum of a list of numbers or a list of products that match some search criteria. With the large size of modern computer memory this may seem to not be as important as the number of steps an algorithm takes, but a poorly performing algorithm in terms of computer memory may be limited in its ability to work with the large data sets common in many industry applications. For example, a query algorithm that stored even a single bit for each record it searched could quickly overwhelm a web server's memory if it was searching a large data set such as Netflix's current movie offerings. Minimising memory usage while also minimizing the number of steps an algorithm takes is not always possible; there is often a tradeoff between computation and memory usage.

Computer Scientists use 'Big O notation' to more accurately describe the performance or complexity of an algorithm, and you are likely to come across this notation very quickly when investigating the performance of algorithms. It characterises the resources needed by an algorithm and is usually applied to the execution time required, or sometimes the space used by the algorithm.

  • Extra For Experts: Examples of Big O notation

    Here are some Big O examples:

    • \(O(1)\) - An algorithm with \(O(1)\) complexity will always execute in the same amount of time regardless of how much data you give it to process. For example, finding the smallest value in a sorted list is always easy.
    • \(O(n)\) - The amount of time an algorithm with \(O(n)\) complexity will take to execute will increase roughly linearly with (i.e. in direct proportion to) the amount of data you give it to process. The high-score algorithm was \(O(n)\), and so was the linear search.
    • \(O(n^{2})\) - The performance of an algorithm with this complexity is roughly proportional to the square of the size of the input data set. Selection sort and insertion sort take \(O(n^{2})\) time. That's not very good value - 10 times the amount of input will take 100 times as long!
    • \(O(2^{n})\) - The amount of time an algorithm with this complexity will take to complete will double with each additional element added to the data set! We haven't seen these kinds of situations in this chapter, but they are common, and are a theme of the Complexity and Tractability chapter. Algorithms that are this slow can be almost impossible to use!

Big O Notation however requires some advanced mathematics to explore thoroughly so has been intentionally left out of this main chapter, but if you want to learn more check out the Useful Links section. These topics are looked at in more depth in the Complexity and Tractability chapter.

To make things even more complicated, theoretical analysis techniques such as Big O Notation are extremely useful when designing and predicting performance but empirical analysis such as stopwatch timing shows that in practice algorithm performance can vary greatly due to hardware and operating system design. Most computers have cached memory and virtual memory, where the time to access a particular value can be particularly short, or particularly long. There is a whole range of algorithms that are used for this situation to make sure that the algorithm still runs efficiently in such environments. Such algorithms are still based on the ideas we've looked at in this chapter, but require some clever adjustments to ensure that they work well.

  • There is another searching algorithm which performs even better than Binary Search. It is called Hashing and can be investigated with the CS Unplugged Battleships Game.
  • There are some problems for which no good algorithms have been found (and many people believe they will never be found). For more on these kinds of algorithms see the Complexity and Tractability chapter in the Field Guide.